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规范激活与规则创建:惩罚未成年人的最佳刑事责任年龄

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摘要: 近期未成年人恶性犯罪事件再次引发如何设置最佳刑事责任年龄的争论。根据刑事立法现状,对该问题需从应然和实然两大层面展开分析。在实然层面,应激活已有刑法规范即第17条第3款,并需满足年龄、罪名与情节的实体限定条件,以及经最高人民检察院核准追诉的程序限定条件。在应然层面,应创建恶意补足年龄规则,即我国未成年人的最低刑事责任年龄不要一降再降,而应选择引入适用于已满7周岁且不满12周岁未成年人的恶意补足年龄规则。我国刑法引进适用“恶意补足年龄规则”必须满足严格的实体条件和程序条件。对“恶意”这一实体条件的认定可区分为事实与法律两个层面。事实层面是法律层面的判断前提, 可通过社会调查和心理测评对“恶意”进行事实判断。在判定未成年人具备恶意之后还必须进行受审能力的评估,且案件证据标准必须区分入罪和出罪的不同阶段,以此满足适用恶意补足年龄规则的程序条件。

Abstract: The recent vicious crimes committed by minors have once again triggered the debate on how to set the optimal age of criminal responsibility. According to the current state of criminal leg islation, such issue should be analyzed from two levels: the practical level and the theoretical level. On the practical level, the Article 17 (3) of the Criminal Law should be activated on the condition that the substantive qualifications and procedural qualifications were met. The former refers to the age, accusation and circumstances, while the latter refers to the approval of prosecution from the Su preme People􀆳s Procuratorate. On the theoretical level, we shall introduce the rule of “malice sup plies the age” which applies to minors between 7 to 12 years, instead of keeping lowering the mini mum age of criminal responsibility in China. The application of the “malicious supplies the age” rule in China must meet substantive and procedural conditions strictly. The substantive condition of “mal ice” shall be interpreted in two levels: fact and law. The factual level judgement, which includes the social investigation and psychological assessment, is the premise of the judgement of legal level. While in the legal level judgement, the minors􀆳 competence to stand trial must be assessed. Also, different evidence standards shall be applied in different stages of criminalization and decriminaliza tion, so as to satisfy the procedural conditions for the application of the rule of “malice supplies the age” .

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[V1] 2024-07-05 21:52:27 PSSXiv:202407.00337V1 下载全文
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